Francis Bellamy, author of the Pledge of Allegiance, was a self-proclaimed socialist who promoted a dogma known as "military socialism." Bellamy was also chairman of a committee to form a World Congress of Youth at the Columbia Exposition in Chicago in 1893. For more information about Bellamy's plan for world domination see the article from the Daily Gleaner on August 22, 1892 at
(A publication named "The Gleaner" still publishes in Jamaica and states that it was established in 1834 at

The Gleaner article states that the goal is a congress composed of youths of all nations of the World (and many countries are listed including Germany, Russia, Italy, France and "countries of the Orient").  Here are excerpts: "It is purposed to draw together the worthiest and the most talented youth of all lands, the coming leaders of mankind that they may be led to realize, as could not otherwise be possible, the meaning and the worth of the fellowship of nations and the brotherhood of man." 

The youths will "stand before the generation to follow us as witnesses of the humanizing power of the World's Exposition of 1893, and be inspired by its influence to higher and more useful careers, making the fulfillment of its great promises their noblest claim to history."

The "humanizing power" that Bellamy brought to the World's Exposition of 1893 (and the fulfillment of Bellamy's "noblest" claim to history) was the nazi salute and robotic chanting to flags daily in military formation in government schools (socialist schools). The "Brotherhood of man" cliche' was popular with the international Theosophical Society, in which Francis Bellamy and Edward Bellamy has relations (see the Society's use of the swastika symbol).  Did those "coming leaders of mankind" include Stalin, Mao and Hitler?

Also see,3627605
an article in The Sydney Mail on Oct 1, 1892.

The World's Youth Congress Auxiliary (or World Congress Auxiliary) asked The Youth's Companion magazine (where Francis Bellamy worked) to organize the scheme. A. F. Nightingale was president of the Youth's World Congress. In January 1892, in preparation for the World's Columbian Fair, the Youth’s Companion also became the manager for the National Public School Celebration of Columbus Day on October 11, 1892.

The international angle for Bellamy's World Youth Congress is one of the reasons why Bellamy's original pledge did not reference the "flag of the United States of America." Bellamy wrote his pledge so that it could be used in any country. He wanted to spread military socialism worldwide.

The official ground breaking for the Columbian Exposition was planned for Columbus Day in 1892, the day around which James Upham of the Youth's Companion organized the Public School Celebration to include the placement of flags in government schools and the promotion of the Pledge of Allegiance.

The early pledge began with a military salute that was then extended toward the flag. It extended military salute from the Pledge of Allegiance was the origin of the salute adopted later by the National Socialist German Workers Party (see the work of the historian Dr. Rex Curry, author of "Pledge of Allegiance Secrets").

It was not an ancient Roman salute. The ancient Roman salute is a myth. Dr. Curry showed that the Roman salute myth came from the pledge.

It played a role in how Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts and scouting in general spread swastikas, Nazi salutes and robotic chanting to flags from the United States to other countries around the world (including Hitler Youth under the National Socialist German Workers Party and Young Pioneers under the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics).

James Gilbert states: The Chicago Fair linked the utopian speculations of the late nineteenth century, particularly as expressed by Edward Bellamy (cousin to Francis Bellamy) and William Dean Howells, to the City Beautiful movement of the first decade of the twentieth century which redesigned cities following the the layout of the Fair (256). The layout of the fair was called the great "white city."

Gilbert observes that the project allowed the architects to create, “bridges between utopian planning and notions of the perfected city and the actual plans of urban architects, road-builders and transportation designers” (256). The exhibition’s designs laid the groundwork for the subsequent “House Beautiful” movement in American architecture.

The architectural choices were condemned by some critics, including one of the designers involved; Louis Sullivan later predicted, “the damage wrought by the World's Fair will last for half a century from its date, if not longer” (Chicago Historical Society).

There are ominous parallels to later plans under the National Socialist German Workers Party, the Union of  Soviet Socialist Republics, and the People's Republic of China.

Altogether, 46 nations presented 250,000 displays. It was intended to commemorate the 400th anniversary of Columbus’ discovery of the New World.

The fair was an enormous undertaking. It lasted six months. It was constructed on reclaimed swampland, bordering Lake Michigan. The fair included the first-ever Ferris wheel. It stood 250 feet tall and rotated 36 cars, each able to hold up to 60 people.

Chicago won out over proposals from New York City, Washington, DC, and St. Louis for the privilege of hosting. When the World’s Columbian Exposition opened on May 1, 1893, the Chicago was just 60 years old. It was the last world’s fair of the 19th century.

Today the only building from the "white city" (as it was called) still standing is the old palace of fine arts. It's since been converted into the city of Chicago's Museum of Science.

What happened to all the other buildings? After the Exposition officially closed, there was a big railway strike in the city of Chicago, and in the ensuing rioting, most of the 'white city' went up in flames. Whatever did not burn to the ground was demolished. The land was leveled. Later, the area was used for various purposes - first athletic fields, then a U.S. Army missile range, and then for a long period of time it was just a big flat reclaimed swampland with weeds. Now the reclaimed swampland is called a "nature preserve." Within only a couple of generations, the Columbian Exposition slid into the dustbin of history.


During the bidding for the World's Fair of 1893, Chicago proponents/politicians put on a rather verbose (windy) campaign to win the bid to host the fair. The choice was down to Chicago, New York, Washington and St. Louis, and the competition before Congress among the cities was fierce. The New York Sun editor Charles Dana wrote: "Don't pay attention to the nonsensical claims of that windy city. Its people could not build a world's fair even if they won it." (Source: Chicago Days, by the Chicago Tribune staff). Although the term "windy city" had been used before regarding Chicago, it had been a reference to its weather. This was the first time it was used regarding long-winded political claims and it grew because papers located in New York and in the other competing towns used the term repeatedly with that meaning.  The socialistic bombasity and machinations from Francis Bellamy and Edward Bellamy provided further justification for the nickname.    

Columbian Exposition 1893 Chicago World's Fair Francis Bellamy Youth Group Scouting

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Stop The Pledge Foundation (STP)

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I work for the "Stop The Pledge" foundation, a non-profit group dedicated to freeing Americans from the Pledge of Allegiance and its putrid past of robotic nazi-style brainwashing. Americans are ignorant about their Pledge of Allegiance. Please see the work of the historian Dr. Rex Curry cited in the book "Libertarian History" by the author Lin Xun. It includes these shockers: (1) that the "Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag" was the origin of the Nazi salute and Nazi behavior; (2) that the military salute was the origin of the Nazi salute (via the military salute's use in the original Pledge of Allegiance) and; (3) Swastikas represented crossed "S" letter shapes for "socialist" under Hitler. At amazon At kindle The National Socialist German Workers Party was influenced by American National Socialists, including Francis Bellamy (author of the Pledge) and his cousin and cohort Edward Bellamy (the author of American books on National Socialism). Remove the Pledge from the flag. Remove the flag from schools. Remove schools from government.