In addition to the notorious salute, American socialists also bear some blame for the notorious symbol used by the National Socialist German Workers Party on its flag. Edward Bellamy worked with the Theosophical Society, another socialist group, and during that time the Theosophical Society used the symbol adopted later by German National Socialists.
The Pledge's early right-arm salute was not an ancient Roman salute. The ancient Roman salute is a myth. Professor Curry showed that the 'ancient Roman salute' myth came from the Pledge.